IT has now been completely proved, and irrefragably established by the labours of learned men, that, independently of the common laws of syntax, the Greek prepositive article is governed by a very remarkable rule, to which it is universally subjected. The rule is this:—When two or more personal nouns (of the same gender, number, and case) are coupled together by the conjunction και, and the article is prefixed to the first, but not to the second, third, etc., those two or more nouns, whether they be substantives or adjectives, denote one and the same person. This also is the case where two participles are thus coupled together.
I have given the rule nearly as it is laid down by Mr. Sharp**: it is, however, subject to certain limitations. Whenever we meet, in a Greek writer, with a sentence constructed according to the rule, if the substantives, adjectives, or participles, be indicatory of qualities and properties which are inconsistent and contradictory; in that case two different persons may be intended, although the article be not prefixed to the latter. The reason of this is obvious. When a Greek writer was speaking of two persons, whom he designated by terms which were opposite and irreconcilable to one another, it was not necessary that he should prefix the article to the second, although he had placed it before the first. Every reader would see at once that the same person could not be both sober and drunken, both virtuous and wicked, both handsome and ugly, etc. It is manifest that all proper names must, for the same reason, be excepted. Every body knows that Paul and Peter cannot be the same person; therefore the article may be placed before Paul, but omitted before Peter. But if a Greek writer was speaking of two different persons, and the substantives, etc., which he employed, were indicatory of qualities and attributes which might harmonize and coalesce in one person, it then became necessary that the article, if prefixed to the first, should be placed before the second also; for otherwise the reader might be misled. It follows from hence that, whenever we meet with a passage constructed according to our rule, if the substantives, etc., indicate qualities and properties which are not contradictory, but may be united in one person, we may then be absolutely certain that one person only is intended.
Corollary. It follows, that when two personal nouns are united by the conjunction και and those nouns are descriptive of two different persons, but imply qualities which might meet in the same person, the article must be prefixed to both, or prefixed to the last only, or prefixed to neither.
Let us apply this doctrine to the criticism of the New Testament, and see if we can arrive at any conclusion of importance.
I shall first select some passages, where different persons are plainly and obviously meant.
Οἱ τελωναι και οἱ ἁμαρτωλοι.—"The publicans and the sinners."
Οἱ Φαρισαιοι και οἱ γραμματεις.—"The Pharisees and the scribes." Luke 15:1, 2.
Οἱ αρχιερεις και οἱ γραμματεις.—"The high priests and the scribes? Luke 20:1.
Οἱ αποστολοι και οἱ αδελφοι.—"The apostles and the brethren." Acts 11:1.
Ὁ βασιλευσ και ὁ ἡγεμων.—"The king and the governor (viz. Agrippa and Festus)" Acts 26:30.
Οἱ φαρμακοι και οἱ πορνοι.—"The enchanters and the fornicators." Rev. 22:15.
Απο Θεου Πατρος ἡμων, και Κυριου Ιησου Χριστου.—"From God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ." 2 Thess. 1:2.
Ιακωβος, Θεου και Ιησου Χριστου δουλος.—"James, a servant of God, and of Jesus Christ." James 1:1.
We see that in the above instances the article is either used twice,
or is wholly omitted.
Let us now examine some passages, wherein it is evident, from the context, that two nouns, coupled together by the conjunction, refer to one and the same person. And here I would observe, that the examples which I have just adduced, and am about to adduce, are not all which the New Testament contains. The catalogue might be easily increased; but my object is to be as brief and as plain as possible.
Ὁ Θεος και Πατηρ του Κυριου ἡμων.—"The God and Father of our Lord." 2 Cor. 1:3; 2 Cor. 11:31; Eph. 1:3.
Του Θεου και Πατρος ἡμων.—"Of our God and Father." 1 Thess. 1:3.
Τῳ Θεῳ και Πατρι του Κυριου ἡμων.—"To the God and Father of our Lord." Col. 1:3.
Τῳ Θεῳ και Πατρι αὑτου.—"To his God and Father." Rev. 1:6.
Επεστραφητε νυν επι τον Ποιμενα και Επισκοπον των ψυχων ὑμων.—"Ye are now returned to the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls." 1 Peter 2:25.
Τυχικος, ὁ αγαπητος αδελφος και πιστος διακονος.—"Tychicus, a beloved brother and faithhl deacon." Eph. 6:21.
Ὁ Βασιλευς των βασιλευοντων και Κυριος των κυριευοντων.—"The King of kings and Lord of lords." 1 Tim. 6:15.
Τον αποστολον και αρχιερεα της ὁμολογιας ἡμων, Χριστον Ιησουν.—"The apostle and high priest of our confession, Christ Jesus." Heb. 3:1.
Τον της πιστεως αρχηγον και τελειωτην, Ιησουν.—"Jesus, the author and perfecter of our faith." Heb. 12:2.
και Σωτηρος, Ιησου Χριστου.—"Of the Lord and Savior Jesus
In all the above cases the nouns are substantives; in the following they are adjectives.
Ὡστε τον τυφλον και κωφον και λαλειν και βλεπειν.—"So that the man who was blind and dumb both saw and spake." Matt. 12:22
Ὁ μακαριος και μονος Δυναστης.—"The blessed and only Potentate." 1 Tim. 6:15.
Ὁ πιστος δουλος και φρονιμος.—"The faithful and wise servant." Matt. 24:45.
Ουκ οικας ὁτι συ ει ὁ ταλαιπωρος, και ελεεινος, και πτωχος, και τυφλος, και γυμνος.—"Thou knowest not that thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked." Rev. 3:17.
και συνεργῳ ἡμων.—"To Philemon, our beloved and
In the following instances the connected words are participles.
Ὁ δε φιλος του Νυμφιου, ὁ ἑστηκως και ακουων αυτου.—"But the friend of the Bridegroom, who standeth and heareth him." John 3:29.
Τῳ αγαπησαντι και λουσαντι ἡμας.—"To Him who loved and washed us." Rev. 1:5.
Εγω Ιωαννης, ὁ βλεπων ταυτα και ακουων.—"I John, the man seeing and hearing these things." Rev. 22:8.
Πας ὁ φιλων και ποιων ψευδος.—"Every person who loveth and maketh a lie." Rev. 22:15.
Ὁ τρωγων μου την σαρκα, και πινων μου το αἱμα.—"He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood." John 6:54.
I have now laid before the reader examples of the phraseology employed in the Greek Testament, when two different persons are manifestly and obviously spoken of in the same member of a sentence; and when one person is as obviously depicted under two different appellations. We see that in the one case the article is prefixed to both words, or to neither: we see that in the other case the article is prefixed to the first word, but wanting before the second, whether they be substantives, or adjectives, or participles. Let us then apply the rule in question, as we do the other rules of syntax, to the explication of a passage in Ephesians 5:5:—
Εν τῃ βασιλειᾳ του Χριστου και Θεου.
"In the kingdom of the Christ and God."
This passage speaks for itself; and to make any comment upon it would be utterly superfluous. I shall only observe, that, as far as certainty can be attained in this present life, as far as we can be assured of the meaning and import of human language, so far may we be certain that the writer of the Epistle to the Ephesians here pronounces Christ to be God.
But what will the Arian say to this? He will tell us that in this passage, the apostle pronounces Jesus Christ to be a god; (mark, a GOD) that is, a being of a high and exalted nature. There are one or two passages in the Old Testament where angels are called gods on account of their transcendent dignity; and Christ, whom we allow, in dignity and power, to be equal or superior to the highest of the angels, may therefore be called a god. This, I believe, is the sum and substance of the Arian doctrine.
In the second chapter of the Epistle to Titus, and the thirteenth verse (Titus 2:13), we have the following overwhelming testimony:—
Επιφανειαν της δοξης του μεγαλου Θεου και Σωτηρος ἡμων, Ιησου Χριστου.
"The glorious manifestation of the great God and Saviour of us, Jesus Christ."
In the last passage that I quoted Christ is styled God; but here he is called the great God. If angels have a right to be denominated gods, we must confess that there are in heaven myriads of gods; but by the words, the great God, one Being only can be designated. Angels may be termed θεοι, but ὁμεγας Θεος is the incommunicable appellation of the Lord God Jehovah! Every one who is at all acquainted with the subject, knows that some hundred MSS. of the Greek Testament, or at least of different parts of it, have now been collated, and that many, many thousands of various readings have been accumulated. Surely it is remarkable that, in the case of these two texts, viz. that in Ephesians, and that in Titus, not one various reading has ever been discovered. Does it not appear that these texts have been providentially guarded, yea, miraculously shielded? Two or three more passages of the Greek Testament might be adduced, which, through the application of this sacred rule, (surely I may call it sacred) most powerfully confirm the divinity of Christ. I forbear, however, to cite them, restricting myself to those expressions only, which, as they have no various reading, cannot possibly be exposed to cavil.
Although I have already proved, to the satisfaction of the unprejudiced, that the rule I have laid down is inherent in the language, and that certain passages of Scripture can admit of no other interpretation than that which I have given; an objection may be started, and a question may be proposed, which claim our most serious attention. The question I mean is this: In what sense were these passages understood by the fathers of the Greek Church? As they lived nearer to the primitive times of Christianity than we do, we allow that they were at least as competent as ourselves to pass judgment in any subject of theological discussion; but in the case now before us, their authority must be considerably greater. In addition to the circumstance of the Greek being their native tongue, some of them were men of very extensive learning, and of distinguished skill in philological researches; they must, therefore, have had a more accurate perception than the most learned amongst us can pretend to, of the precise application of every rule in syntax, the exact meaning of the minutest particle, and the determinate effect of the slightest inflection in the language. They are therefore the properest persons to decide, if such expressions as του Χριστου και Θεου, and του μεγαλου Θεου και Σωτηρος, have, according to the laws of grammar, the meaning which we affix to them. If they perceived in them the force and evidence that we do, they would of course have appealed to them in their controversies with the Arians; and happy would they have been in bringing forward such resistless testimonies to the divinity of our Lord. And they did appeal to them! yes the most illustrious of the fathers, St. Chrysostom himself, appealed to them! In his fifth discourse on the incomprehensible nature of Deity, he sums up those texts of Scripture wherein Christ is called God; and he reckons among them the 5th verse of the 5th chapter of Ephesians, and the 13th verse of the second of Titus. For the satisfaction of the reader I shall translate the passage; and that he may have the clearest view of the subject, I shall translate a considerable portion of the context.
An extract from St. Chrysostom's Fifth Homily, Περι Ακαταληπτου, tom. vi., pages 417, 418. Edit. Savil.
Of the titles which are attributed to the Deity, some are common and some particular; the common denote the indivisibility of the Divine essence; the particular characterize the personality of the hypostases. Thus, the names of Father and of Son appertain each to its peculiar hypostasis; but the names of God and of Lord are common to both. Since the Scripture has applied the appellation of God to all the persons of the Trinity, it was needful also to make use of a distinguishing appellation, that we might know which person it was speaking, and not run into the error of Sabellius. For that the name God is not greater than that of Lord, nor the name Lord inferior to that of God, is manifest from hence: in every part of the Old Testament the Father is styled Lord, The LORD thy God. Again: There is one LORD. And again: Thou shalt worship the LORD thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve. And again: Great is our LORD, and mighty is his power. 'And again: Let them know that thy name is LORD; Thou only art the highest over all the earth. Now, if the name LORD be inferior to that of GOD, and consequently unworthy of the Divine essence, it should not have been said, Let them know that thy name is LORD. Again: if the name of GOD be greater and more venerable than that of Lord, the Son, who according to them is an inferior being, should not have been addressed by a name appropriated to the Father, and which was his own peculiar title; but far otherwise is the case, for neither is the Son of a lower nature than the Father, nor is the name of Lord inferior to that of God. Wherefore, with regard to the Father and the Son, the Scripture uses, indiscriminately, the self-same appellations.
"Having laid before you the passages wherein the Father is called LORD, it is necessary to adduce those passages wherein the Son is styled God. Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and shall bear a son, and they shall call his name EMANUEL; which signifies, GOD is with us. We now perceive that the name of Lord is given to the Father, and that of God unto the Son; for, as in the other place it is said: Let them know that thy name is Lord; so here it saith, They shall call his name EMANUEL. And again: A child is born to us, and a son is given to us, and his name is called The Angel of high counsels, The great and mighty GOD. And here observe the cautious prudence and spiritual wisdom of the prophetic writers; for when they are speaking of the great and mighty God, lest they should seem to be speaking of the Father, they make the most particular mention of the miraculous conception. It is evident, at once, that the Father was not born of a virgin, and did not become a little child. Again, another of the prophets somewhere saith, This is our GOD. But concerning whom doth he say it? Is it of the Father? By no means; for he also alludes to the miraculous economy. Having said, This is our GOD, he adds, He explored the way of knowledge, and gave it to Jacob his child, and to Israel his well loved. After this he was seen upon the earth, and he dwelt among men. Paul also writes: Of whom, as to the flesh, is Christ, who is over all, GOD blessed for evermore. Again: No fornicator or covetous man hath any inheritance in the kingdom of the Christ and GOD. And again: The glorious appearance of the GREAT GOD and Saviour of us, Jesus Christ. John likewise calls him by the same name, for he says, In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with GOD, and the Word was GOD.
"But perhaps an adversary will say, Can you show me any passage where the Scripture, ranking him with the Father, calls the Father Lord? I will not only show this, but I will produce passages where the Scripture calls both the Father LORD, and the Son LORD; and where it calls both the Father GOD and the Son GOD. Christ, one day discoursing with the Jews, said, What think ye concerning Christ? Whose son is he? They say unto him, He is the son of David. He saith to them, How then doth David, in Spirit, call him LORD; saying, The LORD said unto my LORD, Sit thou on my right hand? Mark, here are two LORDS. I will now show you where the Scripture, speaking at once of the Father and the Son, calls both the one and the other GOD. Hear then the words of the Prophet David, and of the Apostle Paul, commenting upon that prophet: Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever; a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of that kingdom. Thou hast loved righteousness and abhorred iniquity; therefore, O GOD, thy GOD hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows. And Paul, bringing forward this testimony concerning Christ, writes thus: Of His angels he saith, Who maketh his ANGELS spirits. But of the SON He saith, Thy throne, O GOD, is for ever and ever!"
In his 5th Hom. on the Epistle to Titus, he thus comments on 2:13.
Που εισιν οἱ του Πατρος ελαττονα τον Υἱον λεγοντες; του μεγαλου, φησι Θεου και Σωτηρος.
"Where are they who assert that the Son is inferior to the Father? Mark, he saith, 'of the great God and Saviour!'"—Tom. iv., page 401. Edit. Sav.
There is, however, another passage in the writings of this eminent father, more absolute and conclusive than those which are already given. The original may be found in the 4th vol. of Sir Henry Savile's edition, page 32. It is in English as follows:—
"He that is small cannot be God; for every where in the Scripture God is denominated great. GREAT is the Lord, says David, and greatly to be praised; (Mark, he also speaks of the Son, for every where he calls him Lord) And again: GREAT art thou, and doing wonders: thou art God alone. And again: GREAT is our Lord, and mighty is his power. But these things, you will say, are spoken of the Father; but the Son is small. You say this, but the Scrilpture asserts the contrary; for as it speaks of the Father, so likewise does it of the Son. Listen unto Paul, who says, Expecting the blessed hope and glorious appearance of the GREAT GOD. Surely he could not apply the word appearance to the Father. And that he may refute you more completely, he adds, of the GREAT GOD. Well, then, must not this have been spoken of the Father? Certainly not; for the words which follow will not admit it: The appearance of the great God AND SAVIOUR OF US, JESUS CHRIST. You perceive that the Son also is denominated great. Away, then, with your idle talk about small and great! Listen to the prophet also, who calls him The ANGEL of GREAT COUNSEL. The Angel·of great counsel, is he not great? The mighty God, is he not great, but small? How, then, can these obstinate and shameless wretches assert that he is a less God? I often repeat their words, that ye may the more eschew them."
If a reader wholly impartial could be found, I think he would pronounce that, as far as we can attain to certainty in any thing, we may be certified from the above extract, that the canon laid down by Mr. Sharp is correct and genuine. Chrysostom supposes an adversary to address him thus:—
"I see that in this sentence God is spoken of, and not merely spoken of, but likewise styled The GREAT GOD. Surely such an expression as this must refer to the Father." "No, replies our saint, that is impossible, for the phrase και Σωτηρος, which follows, shows at once that Θεος and Σωτηρ mean the same person; and Σωτηρ, in this place, is spoken of Jesus Christ."
Such is the testimony of Chrysostom, the most eloquent, if not the most learned, of the fathers. Basil, archbishop of Caesarea, though inferior to Chrysostom in richness of imagination and brilliancy of rhetoric, far surpassed him and almost all the fathers, in the universality of his learning, and in his profound knowledge of the sacred writings. No authority can be higher or more unquestionable than his. Let me, however, just observe that, although somewhat inferior on the whole to Chrysostom, he was still a most accomplished orator, and a very polished writer. In his fourth book against Eunomius, speaking of the Divinity of Christ, he cites the latter of these texts; but having done so, he is fearful lest some of his hearers should be misled by it. The expression του μεγαλου Θεου, appears to him so strong, that he is apprehensive lest it should be thence inferred that the Son is greater than the Father!
This passage will be found in the first volume of the Benedictine
edition, and at page 294—tom. ii. p. 107. Edit. Par., 1618.
As I have proved that the best and purest of the Greek fathers were well acquainted with the full force of the article, it may be asked, Do their own writings abound with examples to confirm it? I answer, that they every where abound with them. Let a few examples suffice.
Ὁ ἁγιαζων αυτα και μετασκευαζων, Αυτος εστι.—"It is He who sanctifies and transforms them; namely, the bread and wine." Homil. 82, in Matt.
Εγκαλοιη τῳ Σωτηρι και Ευεργετῃ.—"He would accuse the Saviour and Benefactor." De Sacerd. lib. iv.
Ἡ σφοδρα εναγης και ακαθαρτος, (πορνη)—"The very criminal and impure." Orat. in Eutrop.
Συν τῳ ζωοποιῳ και παναγιῳ Πνευματι.—"With the life-bestowing and all-holy Spirit." De Ineompreh. Hom. 2
Που δε οἱ σοβουντες και μυρια εγκωμια λεγοντες.—"And where are they who walk insolently, and utter ten thousand panegyrics?" Orat. in Eutrop.
Και τι λεγω τον προφητην; αυτον αγω σοι, τον του προφητου δεσποτην, τον κοινον ἡμων Θεον και Κυριον, τον Χριστον. Αυτος γαρ φησιν, ὁτι πεινωντα με ειδετε, και εθρεψατε.—"But why do I mention the prophet? I will bring against you Him who is the Master of the prophet, our common God and Lord, the Christ. For he says, 'Ye saw me hungering, and ye fed me.'" Orat. in Eliam, et in viduam.
Mark, either Chrysostom speaks of one single person, or the sentence is ungrammatical. Now the passage in the 13th of the 2d chapter of Titus, του μεγαλου Θεου και Σωτηρος, must be construed in the same manuer as τον κοινον Θεον και Κυριον.
From Gregory Nazianzen.
Ὁ Ζευς, ὁ των Θεων μηστωρ και ὑπατος.—"Jove, the counsellor and highest of the gods." Orat. 2, adv. Julian.
Οἱ την πενιαν ἡμιν ονειδιζοντες, και τον πλουτον κομπαζοντες.—"Reproaching my poverty, and boasting of their own wealth." Orat. in Arianos.
Των ὡραιων ετι και τῳ ζῃν επιτηδειων.—"Who were yet in the bloom of youth, and fitted to enjoy life." Orat. Funebr. in Patrem.
Των ἑστωτων και ου ῥεοντων.—"Beings, permanent and imperishable." Ibid.
Τον σον ἱερον και ὁμωνυμον.—"Thy priest and namesake." Ibid.
Οἱ αηττητοι και γενναιοι του Χριστου στρατιωται.—"The unconquered and noble soldiers of Christ." Orat. in quadragint. Martyr.
και επαναγοντα.—"Him who liberates and brings us back."
Orat. in Martyr. Julitt.
But what say the heathen authors? Is this doctrine of the Greek article founded upon the phraseology of ecclesiastical writers only, or does it exist in the works of those who wrote in the utmost purity and perfection of the language? It reigns triumphant in them all. Examine whatever authority you please, whether in prose or verse: consult the poets, the philosophers, and the historians; peruse the writings of Homer and of Sophocles, of Aristotle and of Plato, of Thucydides and Xenophon, of Isocrates or Demosthenes: in them you will meet with the most decisive testimonies to the truth of the doctrine already laid down. If you appeal to Lucian, you will find that Ulysses is called του ξενου και φιλου, "the host and friend." You may, perchance, have heard that the great Porson pronounced Lucian to be a writer of small authority; and you may wish to be convinced from the example of a pure Attic writer. Was ever writer more pure than Xenophon? And he will tell you, that Cyrus was at once ὁ βασιλευς και ἡγεμων, "The king and general."
Was ever writer more pure than Plato? This sublime and wondrous man declares in his Phaedo, that God is τον αγαθον και φρονιμον, "The good and sapient." He elsewhere styles him, τον των παντων Θεον του τε ἡγεμονος και αιτιου πατερα: "The God of all things, and Father of the ruler and efficient cause." In the following passage he is speaking of two different classes of persons. Having connected them by και, and prefixed the article to the first, he places it before the second also, τοις καταψηισαμενοις μου, και τοις κατηγοροις: "Those who condemned me, and mine accusers."
In the Agamemnon of Aeschylus (and indeed in almost every tragedy of that poet) we are presented with confirmations of our rule.
Ὁ χρυσαμοιβος δ ᾿ Αρης σωματων,
Και ταλαντουχος εν μαχῃ δορος.
V. 426, edit. Blomfield.
"Mars, the exchanger of bodies, and holder of the balance in the conflict of the spear"
Πατερα Θυεστην τον εμον,—
Αὑτου τ ᾿ αδελφον.
"Thyestes, my father and his brother."
This last is a happy instance. Aegisthus is speaking of his father, who was brother to Atreus.
Του θυτηρος και σε τιμωντος.
"Of the sacrificer and him honouring thee."
Aeschyli Clioephoroe, v. 253.
Orestes, in a prayer to Jupiter, is speaking of Agamemnon. We have here an instance of a substantive and a participle being connected.
One of the passages which I have cited from the New Testament may be thought by some to be liable to an objection. I mean the 5th verse of the 5th chapter of Ephesians. It may be said that the word Χριστος is not a substantive, but an adjective, ανηρ, or ανθρωπος, being understood; and it may be asked, Does this rule apply when an adjective and a substantive are united by the conjunction, the article being prefixed to the first and not to the second? I answer, by referring the objector to an example which I have given from St. Gregory Nazianzen; there, μηστωρ is a substantive, and ὑπατος an adjective; and it is manifest that Jupiter, and Jupiter only, is intended.
Lest it should appear to any that I have been too concise, and have not furnished a sufficient number of corroborating examples, I shall subjoin the following; two from the New Testament, some from the fathers and some from heathen poets.
Αναβαινω προς τον Πατερα μου και Πατερα ὑμων, και Θεον μου και Θεον ὑμων.—"I ascend to my Father and your Father, and my God and your God." John 20:17. This is an excellent example, where the supreme Being is considered in the four distinct relations of God and Father of Christ, and God and Father of men; the article being placed before the first only.
Αναγκαιον δε ἡγησαμην Επαφροδιτον τον αδελφον και συνεργον και συστρατιωτην μου, ὑμων δε αποστολον, και λειτουργον της χρειας μου, πεμψαι προς ὑμας.—"Yet I supposed it necessary to send to you Epaphroditus, my brother and companion in labor, and fellow soldier, but your messenger, and him who ministered to my wants." Phil. 2:25. This is a very remarkable example, where the article is placed before αδελφον, and wanting before συνεργον, συστρατιωτην, αποστολον, and λειτουργον, because they all refer to Επαφροδιτον.
Εις Δια, τον ξενιον και ἱκεσιον.—"Unto Jove, the friend of strangers, and guardian of suppliants." Heliod. p. 82. edit. Coray.
Πειθομενος παρ ᾿ Ἑρμου, του καλλιστου και αγαθωτατου των θεων.—"Being persuaded by Mercury, the fairest and best of the gods." Ibid.
Αμφι τον αναρχον και ανωλεθρον Βασιλεα.—"Around the King without beginning and imperishable." Methodius, Sympos. Virg.
Του κορυφαιοτατου παρ ᾿ ὑμων και πρωτου των ποιητων, Ὁμηρου.—"Of Homer, whom ye consider the first and most eminent of the poets." Justin Martyr, Cohortatio ad Graecos.
Ὁ δυστυχης δαιμων, ὁ σος κᾳμος.
"Mine and thine evil genius."
Ὁ Αρχιστρατηγος και Ποιμην των κατ ᾿ ουρανον, ᾡ παντα πειθονται.—"The supreme Ruler and Shepherd of them in heaven, whom all things obey." Methodius.
Ἱνα τον Βασιλεα γεραιρῃ παντων και Ποιητην.—"That he may venerate the King and Maker of all." Ibid.
Ὁ στρατηγος ἡμων και ποιμην Ιησους, και αρχων, και νυμφιος.—"Jesus, our leader, and shepherd, and governor, and bridegroom." Ibid.
The three following instances are from the poems of Gregory Nazianzen. It will be seen that even in poetry he cannot deviate from the established rule; and yet we here find one false quantity and three violations of the laws of Iambic trimeter.
Ὁ μανιωδης και κακιστος ζωγραφος.
Adv. Iram, tom. 2, p. 284. Edit. Paris, 1609.
"The insane and most execrable painter."
Τι λοιπον; ὁρκιζω σε των κακων φιλον,
Τον δυσμενη συνηγορον και προστατην.
Ib. p. 237
"What remains? I adjure thee, the friend of the wicked, the malevolent advocate and patron."
Ὁ λυσσωδης και βασκανος οἱα τιν Ιωβ
Ες δηριν καλεει—
Ib. p. 77.
"Doth the infuriate and invidious demon call me, like another Job, unto the combat?"
Most of the above writers, and most of those I am about to cite, have not yet been quoted on this subject. The examples from Methodius appear to me to be the most valuable. It must now be clearly seen that any Greek writer whatever will furnish sufficient examples to illustrate and establish this important rule.
Τον Θεον μονον αρνεισθε, τον δεσποτην και δημιουργον του παντος.—"Ye deny the only God, the Lord and Creator of all." Chrysostomi Orat. De non anathem, vivis aut defunctis.
Τον μακαριον και αοιδιμον τουτον.—"This blessed and celebrated man." Georg. Archiep. Alexand. De Vita Chrysostom.
Οἱ ταχεις τα παντα και ουκ ασφαλεις, οἱ ῥᾳδιως οικοδομουντες και καταλυοντες.—"They who are swift in every thing, and not firm; who readily rear superstructures, and destroy them." Gregor. Nazianz. Orat. Apol. de Fuga.
Αρης—ὁ της χρυσης Αφροδιτης αφυης εραστης και μοιχος απερισκεπτος.—"Mars, the unskilful lover of the golden Venus, and uncircumspect adulterer." Ibid. Orat. 1. adv. Julianum.
Μωυσης—ὁ μεν θεος Φαραω, και του Ισραηλ προστατης και νομοετης.—"Moses, the god of Pharaoh, and president and lawgiver of Israel." Ibid. Orat. 2. adv. Julian.
Ὁ μεν αρχων αρχοντων, και ἱερευς ἱερεων (speaking of Moses)—"The ruler of rulers, and priest of priests." Ibid.
Συ τε, ὁ της εμης φιλοσοφιας βασανιστης και κριτης.—"And thou, the investigator and judge of my philosophy." Ibid.
Εν ἡμερᾳ επιφανειας και αποκαλυψεως του μεγαλου Θεου και Αρχιποιμενος ἡμων, Ιησου Χριστου.—"In the day of the appearance and revelation of Jesus Christ, the great God and chief Shepherd of us." Ibid.
Τον των γεννητων ἁπαντων Κυριον και Θεον και Βασιλεα.—"The Lord, and God, and King of all mortals." (De Christo loquitur.) Eusebii Pamph. Eccles. Hist., lib. i. c. 2.
Των μεγαλαυχων και πολυανδρων.
"Of the proud and numerous Persians."
Aeschyli Persae, v. 538. Edit. Blomfield.
Ταν δοριγαμβρον αμφινεικη θ'
"Helen, the spear wedded and much contended for."
Aeschyli Agam. v. 669.
Ἡ τ ᾿ αιχμαλωτος ἡδε και τερασκοπος,
Και κοινολεκτρος τουδε.
"And this woman, the captive, and observer of prodigies, and sharer of his bed."
Aechyli Agam. v. 1415.
Οπα τας Τηρειας
Μητιδος οικτρας αλοχου,
Κιρκηλατου τ ᾿ αηδονος.
"The voice of the wretched wife of Tereus, and the nightingale, pursued by the falcon."
Aeschyli Supplices, v. 60. Edit. Porson.
This is an excellent example. It may be necessary to inform the unlearned that, according to Aeschylus, the wife, and not the sister-in-law of Tereus, was changed into the nightingale. See the Agamemnon, v. 1146, Edit. Porson.
Ὁ μακαριος Ειρηναιος, ὁ μαρτυρ και επισκοπος Λουγδουνου.—"The blessed Irenaeus, the martyr and bishop of Lugdunum." Justinus, in Responsione ad Quaestionem 115, ad Orthodoxos.
Ιουστινου του φιλοσοφου και μαρτυρος.—"Of Justin, the philosopher and martyr." Theodoretus, in Praefactione Haereticarum Fabularum.
Ἱνα Χριστῳ Ιησου τῳ Κυριῳ ἡμων, και Θεῳ και Σωτηρι, και Βασιλει, κατα την ευδοκιαν του Πατρος του αορατου, τον γονυ καμψῃ.—"That to Christ Jesus, our Lord, and God, and Saviour, and King, according to the good pleasure of the invisible Father, every knee may bow." Irenaeus, adversus Haereses, lib. i. c. 2. p. 45. Edit. Oxon. 1702.
Τον Κριστην και Δημιουργον.—"The Creator and Maker." Ibid. c. 4, p. 48.
Ὁ Πατηρ—ὁ ανεννοητος και ανουσιος.—"The Father that cannot be fathomed by the understanding, and who is immaterial." Ibid. c. 10, p. 63.
Ἁ εστι κατα πιστιν και αγαπην Ιησου Χριστου, του Θεου και Σωτηρος ἡμων.—"Which are according to the faith and love of Jesus Christ, our God and Saviour." Ignatii Epist. ad Romanos.
Μονον, ἱνα τον Χριστον ιδω τον Σωτηρα μου και Θεον.—"So that I may but behold Christ, my Saviour and God." Epistola ad Tarsenses, Ignatio adscripta.
Οἱ παντα προς χαριν ποιουντες και λεγοντες.—"They who do and say every thing to gain favour." Chrysostom. Orat. in Eutrop.
Ὁ αλαζων και βαρβαρος.
"The insolent and barbarous."
Basilii Homil. in quadragint martyres.
Η καλη και σοφη Χαρκιλεια.
"The fair and sapient Chariclea."
Heliod. lib. 3.
Της θηλυπαιδος και τριανορος κορης.
"Of the girl who bore a female child, and had three husbands."
Τοις σοισι καμοις παισι.
"To thine and my children."
Ὁ εμος γενετας και σος.—(Creusa loquitur de Ion.)
"My son and thine."
Του ψευδορκου και ξειναπατα.
"The false swearer and deceiver of thine host."
Euripidis Medea. v. 1389.
—Οἱα τε πασχομεν εκ της μυσαρας
Και παιδοφονου της δε λεαινης.
"What things we suffer from this execrable and child-slaying lioness!"
Ibid. v. 1405.
These two passages of the Medea I have given from the corrected text of the learned Professor Porson.
Ἡ του μεγαλου Διος αδελφη και ὁμοζυγος, [sc. Ἡρα]—"The sister and wife of the great Jove." Gregor. Nazianz. Orat. adv. Julian.
Οικεται του σταυρουμενου και λεγοντος, Αφες αυτοις.—"The servants of Him who was crucified, and said, 'Forgive them.'" Chrysostom. Orat. in Eutrop.
Τῳ αθλητῃ και μαρτυρι Χριστου.—"To the champion and martyr of Christ." Martyrium S. Ignatii.
Τον ιδιον Βασιλεα και Διδασκαλον.—"His own king and teacher." Epist. De Polycarpi Martyrio.
Του μακαριου και ενδοξου Παυλου.—"Of the blessed and glorious Paul." Polycarpi Epistola ad Philipp.
Ιησου Χριστῳ, τῳ Υἱῳ ανθρωπου, και Υἱθ Θεου.—"To Jesus Christ, the Son of man, and Son of God" Ignat. ad Ephes.
Ὁ καθαρσιος και σωτηριος και μειλιχος.
"The purificatory and preservative and propitiatory."
Clemens Alexand. Προτρεπτ.
Τον των παντων Δημιουργον και Πατερα.
"The Creator and Father of all."
Clemens Alexand. ibid.
The learned reader will perceive, from the numerous examples which I have given, and the unlearned may perceive through the subjoined translations, that all the Greek authors, whether of an ancient or a more modern date, whether writing in prose or in verse, whether Christian or heathen, unite in one general chorus of attestation to the Divinity of Christ, and that Parnassian flowers, blent with the roses of Carmel and Sharon, encircle the brow of the Redeemer. Such is the cheering, the beneficial influence of learning. Such are the glorious effects resulting from the study of antiquity. Who shall contemn hereafter our classical acquirements; acquirements which can boast they have illustrated the glory of the Gospel? Who shall hereafter despise philology, when philology is become a handmaid of the Lord? The learning of the Gentiles is indeed the bulwark of Christianity, the outpost which secures the citadel, the foliage which protects the fruit. The star of Athens never beams with such resplendence as when it illuminates the path to Palestine; and never does Castalia's fountain so sweetly murmur, as when, emulous of Siloa's brook, it flows by the mount of Zion, and laves the oracle of God. Thus may it flow eternally! and, as its increasing current rolls over the instructed nations, may it cleanse them, as it has cleansed us, from the pollutions of those who have dishonoured it!